Construction and validation of the Outpatient Health Care Usability Profile (OHCUP)

Charles E. Drum, M.P.A., J.D., Ph.D., Willi Horner-Johnson, Ph.D., Emily S. Walsh, M.P.H.


Disability and Health Journal, October 2012 Volume 5, Issue 4, Pages 292–297



The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) requires health care facilities to provide equal access to patents with disabilities. Yet, people with disabilities experience many access barriers.


To develop a valid, reliable, and user-friendly tool that measures the physical and environmental features of outpatient health care facilities. Instead of addressing full compliance with the ADA, the tool measures the essential features of an outpatient health care facility.


The project included an online survey of people with disabilities (reported elsewhere), work groups of people with disabilities prioritizing ADA administrative guidelines (ADAAG), ADA expert review, measure development, pilot testing and re-testing. ADA experts’ ratings were summarized as Content Validity Ratios (CVR). Retained ADAAG items were organized into a survey instrument and tested by raters at outpatient health clinics. Inter-rater reliability was assessed using Cohen’s Kappa coefficient and Gwet’s AC1 statistic. Refinement and re-testing of the instrument was conducted.


The work groups narrowed the ADAG items from over 400 to 154 items. CVR ratings from ADA subject-matter experts reduced the items to 129. Inter-rater reliability for the pilot version was 0.61 (Kappa) and 0.88 (AC1). After refinement, inter-rater reliability was 0.77 (Kappa) and 0.90 (AC1). The items with the lowest reliability scores were re-examined, revised, and re-tested. Inter-rater reliability for the final version of the OHCUP was 0.89 (Kappa) and 0.97 (AC1).


The OHCUP is a valid and reliable tool for measuring the usability of health care facilities.