Most states enroll individuals with disabilities who receive Supplemental Security Income (SSI) in Medicaid managed care plans. The impact of managed care on these individuals, especially those with substance abuse disorders, is not well understood. A review of the literature related to substance abuse, disability, and Medicaid managed care suggests that substance abuse is a serious issue for individuals with disabilities. More research is needed to determine how the substance abuse treatment needs of individuals with disabilities can be met through Medicaid managed care. The authors identified topics for a research agenda on the needs of individuals with disabilities who also experience co-occurring substance abuse disorders. Implications for social work policy and practice are discussed.