Sedentary behavior in adults with visual impairments

Brooke E. Starkoff, Ph.D., Elizabeth K. Lenz, Ph.D., Lauren Lieberman, Ph.D., John Foley, Ph.D.

Disability and Health Journal, Volume 9, Issue 4


Specific sedentary behaviors (SB) are associated with risk factors for preventable chronic health conditions in adults, yet time participating in SB has increased over the years.


To explore the SB habits of individuals with visual impairments (VI) and the relationship with self-reported visual acuity (VA).


Individuals participated in this cross-sectional study by completing the Patient-centered Assessment & Counseling for Exercise (PACE+) Sedentary Behavior Questionnaire (SBQ) for adults to assess estimated time spent in nine SB. Means and frequencies of SB were conducted and 2 × 4 ANOVAs were used to explore differences in SB by gender and VA.


Seventy-one men (36.1 ± 14.2 yrs; 28.5 ± 6.7 kg/m2) and sixty-nine women (35.9 ± 12.3 yrs; 29 ± 8.3 kg/m2) with VI participated in this study. Individuals reported spending most time watching television (TV), traveling, and doing paperwork/computer work. Participants spent 9.95 ± 4.78 h per day engaging in SB during the week and 8.53 ± 4.29 h per day on the weekend. Significant differences were found between VA for reading on weekdays (B1 = 1.41 ± 1.81 vs. B4 = 0.42 ± 0.60 h/day) and weekend days (B1 = 1.55 ± 1.75 vs. B4 = 0.48 ± 0.67 h/day), as well as for watching TV on the weekends (B4 = 2.69 ± 1.61 vs. B1 = 1.39 ± 1.52 h/day).


When reducing SB it may be important to target specific SB based upon the individual. Programs that support the reduction of SB must be encouraged.