Rosenberg DE, Bombardier CH, Artherholt S, Jensen MP, Motl RW. Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA 98101, USA. email@example.com. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2013 Apr;94(4):731-6. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2012.11.014. Epub 2012 Nov 16.
OBJECTIVE: To test hypothesized associations between depression and physical activity among adults with multiple sclerosis (MS), spinal cord injury (SCI), muscular dystrophy (MD), and postpolio syndrome (PPS).
DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey.
SETTING: Survey responses collected from individuals in the Washington state area (participants with SCI) and across the United States (participants with MS, MD, and PPS).
PARTICIPANTS: Convenience sample of participants were surveyed (N=1676; MD, n=321; PPS, n=388; MS, n=556; SCI, n=411).
INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) assessing depressive symptoms and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ) assessing physical activity.
RESULTS: The average age was 56 years, 64% were women, 92% were white, 86% had a high school degree or higher, and 56% walked with an assistive device or had limited self-mobility. The IPAQ and GLTEQ explained a small but statistically significant and unique amount of the variance in PHQ-9 scores in all diagnostic groups, with no significant differences in the relation by condition, age, or mobility status (IPAQ R(2)=.004; GLTEQ R(2)=.02; both P<.02).
CONCLUSIONS: Both physical activity measures demonstrated a small but statistically significant association with depression in all 4 diagnostic groups. Research is needed to determine longitudinal relations and whether physical activity interventions could promote improved mood in adults with physical disabilities.
CONCLUSIONS: The ED visit rate was much higher than those reported in other studies. Better education on self-management of chronic conditions, depression screening by primary care physicians and ED, and depression treatment that includes symptom management and problem-solving skills may be important to reduce ED visits among medically ill, low-income homebound adults.