SOURCE: Center for Management of Complex Chronic Care, Edward Hines, Jr., Veterans Administration Hospital, Hines, Illinois, USA. email@example.com
AIMS: The primary aim of this study was to describe and compare perceived life satisfaction and perceived functional motor and cognitive status 1 year after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in males and females, adjusting for demographics and severity of injury.
METHODS: Data of 297 participants were abstracted from the National Institute on Disability Rehabilitation and Research (NIDRR)-funded Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems (TBIMS). Participants were aged 16-50, enrolled in the TBIMS study between the years 1998 and 2008, diagnosed with severe TBI (defined as having an initial Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] score between 3 and 8), and with perceived life satisfaction and functional status data available at 1 year postinjury. Multiple linear regression models were used to estimate the association between sex, demographic variables, severity of injury, and the outcome variables.
RESULTS: Our findings indicate that sex did not significantly influence perceived satisfaction with life or motor function 1 year after severe TBI. However, females had significantly better (p = 0.031) cognitive outcomes compared to males 1 year after severe TBI, after controlling for demographics and severity of injury.
CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that females may have better perceived cognitive functional outcomes than males 1 year after severe TBI. Further longitudinal research, including measurement of hormonal levels, is needed to determine if hormones influence outcomes of severe TBI as well as the trajectory of these outcomes. A better understanding of sex differences in outcomes after TBI will help clinicians improve strategies for rehabilitation.