Purpose: To determine the relation between depressive symptoms and seizure severity among people with epilepsy.
Methods: A postal questionnaire was used to survey a nationwide community sample about seizures and depression. The Seizure Severity Questionnaire (SSQ) assessed the severity and bothersomeness of seizure components. The Centers for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale categorized levels of depression.
Results: Respondents categorized as having current severe (SEV, n = 166), mild-moderate (MOD, n = 74), or no depression (NO, n = 443) differed significantly in SSQ scores (all p < 0.0001). People with SEV or MOD reported significantly worse problems than did those with NO depression for overall seizure recovery (mean, 5.3, 4.9, 4.5, respectively); overall severity (5.0, 4.5, 4.2); and overall seizure bother (5.3, 4.8, 4.4) (all p < 0.005). Cognitive, emotional, and physical aspects of seizure recovery also were rated worse among people with SEV than with NO depression (all p < 0.05). Symptoms of depression were significantly correlated with higher levels of all components of generalized tonic-clonic seizure severity (r = 0.33-0.48; all p < 0.0001), and partial seizures (r = 0.31-0.38; all p < 0.01). Conclusion: Clinically depressed people with epilepsy reported higher levels of perceived severity and bother from seizures, as well as greater problems with overall seizure recovery than did nondepressed people experiencing similar types of seizures. The pervasive influence of depressive symptoms on reports of seizure activity suggests that people with epilepsy should be screened for depression. These data highlight the importance of detecting and treating depression among people with epilepsy. Mental Retardation Electroconvulsive therapy for affective disorders in persons with mental retardation. Kessler RJ. Psychiatr Q. 2004 Spring;75(1):99-104. Adults and Children with Learning and Developmental Disabilities, Bethpage, New York, USA. email@example.com Despite the efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy for the treatment of affective disorders there are no systematic studies of its effectiveness or safety in the mentally retarded population. A literature search revealed 16 case reports that suggests that it is both as effective and safe with mentally retarded persons as in the general population. Four additional clinical vignettes, with extensive follow-up observation from four to eleven years, are presented in an effort to enrich the literature on this subject. They include patients with rapid cycling bipolar disorder, bipolar disorder, manic phase, major depression with psychotic features and schizoaffective disorder. Issues of diagnostic difficulty and pharmacologic prophylaxis are addressed. Multiple Sclerosis Analyses of nursing home residents with multiple sclerosis and depression using the Minimum Data Set. Buchanan RJ, Wang S, Tai-Seale M, Ju H. Mult Scler. 2003 Mar;9(2):171-88. Department of Health Policy and Management, School of Rural Public Health, The Texas A&M University System Health Science Center, College Station, TX 77843-1266, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org Depression is the most common psychiatric condition among people with multiple sclerosis (MS). A total of 14009 people with MS at admission to a nursing facility were analyzed using the Minimum Data Set and 36% also had depression. This study developed profiles of nursing home residents with MS who also had depression and compared them with other residents with MS. MS residents with depression were significantly more likely to be female and younger than other MS residents, with significant racial differences as well. MS residents with depression were significantly more likely than other MS residents to have a history of mental health conditions, exhibit mood indicators, and have unsettled relationships. Both groups of MS residents had high levels of physical disability, although MS residents with depression tended to be slightly less disabled. MS residents with depression were more likely than other MS residents to experience daily pain and more likely to have the diseases common to all residents with MS. This research found that most MS residents with depression did not receive mental health services, demonstrating that nursing facilities must improve the mental healthcare provided to residents with MS with depression. Multiple Sclerosis Anxiety and depression influence the relation between disability status and quality of life in multiple sclerosis. Janssens AC, van Doorn PA, de Boer JB, Kalkers NF, van der Meche FG, Passchier J, Hintzen RQ. Mult Scler. 2003 Aug;9(4):397-403. Department of Neurology, Erasmus MC, PO Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Disability status, depression and anxiety are important determinants of quality of life (QoL) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). We investigated whether anxiety and depression influence the relation between disability status and QoL in our cohort of recently diagnosed patients. Disability status [Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS)], anxiety and depression [Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)], and QoL (SF-36) were prospectively obtained in 101 MS patients. The relation between EDSS and SF-36 scales was examined using regression analyses, without and with adjustment for anxiety and depression. Interaction effects were investigated by comparing the relation between EDSS and QoL in patients with high and low anxiety and depression. In the unadjusted analyses, EDSS was significantly related to all SF-36 physical and mental health scales. After adjustment for anxiety and depression, EDSS was significantly related only to the SF-36 physical functioning, role-physical functioning and bodily pain scales. The relation between EDSS and these SF-36 scales was consistently higher in patients with more symptoms of anxiety or depression, suggesting that anxiety and depression strengthened the association of EDSS in these SF-36 physical health scales. After adjustment for anxiety and depression, EDSS was not significantly related to the SF-36 mental health scales and the general health scale. This finding is compatible with the hypothesis that anxiety and depression are intermediate factors in the association of EDSS with these SF-36 scales. Screening for symptoms of anxiety and depression is recommended in studies that use QoL as an outcome measure of treatment or intervention efficacy. Multiple Sclerosis Depression, fatigue, and health-related quality of life among people with advanced multiple sclerosis: results from an exploratory telerehabilitation study. Egner A, Phillips VL, Vora R, Wiggers E. NeuroRehabilitation. 2003;18(2):125-33 Department of Health Policy and Management, Rollins School of Public Health of Emory University, 1518 Clifton Road, NE, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. This study reports on secondary data, depression, fatigue and health-related quality of life (HRQOL), collected on people with advanced multiple sclerosis (MS) as part of a larger study of the impact of a telerehabilitation intervention on people with severe mobility impairment. People with spinal cord injuries (SCIs) (n=111) and the prevention of pressure sores were the primary group of interest of the project. The focus here is on data collected from people with advanced MS (n=27), who were included as an exploratory cohort, as they experience increased risk of pressure ulcer development as their level of mobility declines. The study consisted of a nine-week intervention with three randomized groups: video, telephone, and standard care. Aside from information on pressure sores, data were also collected on fatigue, depression, and HRQOL for a two-year follow-up period. For the video group HRQOL scores trended higher and fatigue and depression scores lower for 24 months. Fatigue scores were significantly lower for the video group at month six, 12, and 18. In the sample overall, fatigue symptoms were far more prominent than depressive symptoms and affected 100% higher rates of depression than women. At baseline, controlling for Extended Disability Status Score (EDSS), depression and fatigue were correlated. However, contrary to indications from previous cross-sectional studies, no consistent relationship was observed over time between the two. Telerehabilitation interventions for people with advanced MS warrant further investigation. Findings here suggest that such interventions may be beneficial, although the results need affirmation through larger samples. In addition, the higher prevalence of male depression merits serious attention. Multiple Sclerosis Depressive symptoms and severity of illness in multiple sclerosis: epidemiologic study of a large community sample. Chwastiak L, Ehde DM, Gibbons LE, Sullivan M, Bowen JD, Kraft GH. Am J Psychiatry. 2002 Nov;159(11):1862-8. Department of Psychiaty and Behavioral Sciences, Harborview Medical Center, Box 359911, Seattle, WA 98104, USA. Ichwast@u.washington.edu Objective: Previous research has shown high prevalence rates of depression in multiple sclerosis patients seen in specialty clinics. The relationships among depressive symptoms and severity, duration, and course of multiple sclerosis are controversial. Methods: A survey was mailed to members of the Multiple Sclerosis Association of King County (Wash.). Of the 1,374 eligible participants, 739 returned the survey, a response rate of 53.8%. Data about demographic characteristics, employment, and duration and course of multiple sclerosis were collected. Severity of multiple sclerosis was determined by the Expanded Disability Status Scale, self-report version. Severity of depressive symptoms was evaluated with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D Scale). Analysis of covariance was used to compare mean CES-D Scale scores across categories of multiple sclerosis, and logistic regression was used to identify variables associated with clinically significant depression. Results: Clinically significant depressive symptoms (CES-D Scale score > or =16) were found in 41.8% of the subjects, and 29.1% of the subjects had moderate to severe depression (score > or =21). Subjects with advanced multiple sclerosis were much more likely to experience clinically significant depressive symptoms than subjects with minimal disease. Shorter duration of multiple sclerosis was associated with a greater likelihood of significant depressive symptoms, but the pattern of illness progression was not.
Conclusion: In this large community sample, the severity of multiple sclerosis was more strongly associated with depressive symptoms than was pattern of illness. Clinicians should evaluate depression in patients with recent diagnoses of multiple sclerosis, major changes in functioning, or limited social support.