Translation and validation of the Farsi version of the Wheelchair Outcome Measure (WhOM-Farsi) in individuals with spinal cord injury

Samaneh Alimohammad, M.Sc. (O.T.), Shahriar Parvaneh, Ph.D. (O.T.), Setareh Ghahari, Ph.D. (O.T.), Hooshang Saberi, M.P.H. (M.D.), Mir Saeed Yekaninejad, Ph.D., William C. Miller, Ph.D.

Disability and Health Journal, Vol. 9, Issue 2, p265–271
Published online: October 7, 2015


The Wheelchair Outcome Measure (WhOM) evaluates participation outcomes associated with wheelchair use. While English and French versions of this measure have shown appropriate psychometric properties, it is not clear whether this measure is valid and reliable when used in a culture significantly different from the western culture.


To establish validity and reliability for the WhOM-Farsi.


After a forward-backward translation using the International Quality of Life Assessment process, the WhOM-Farsi was administered to 75 Farsi speakers with spinal cord injury. The WhOM-Farsi was administered on two occasions to examine test-retest reliability. Two therapists rated the measure to evaluate inter-rater reliability. Construct validity was assessed by measuring associations between scores of the WhOM-Farsi, the 12-item short-form health survey (SF-12), the Beck Depression Index (BDI-II) and the Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM-III).


The intra class correlation coefficient (ICC) for inter-rater reliability for all scores was 0.99. For test-retest, the ICC was 0.91, 0.94 and 0.83 for Sat, Imp × Sat and body function, respectively. As hypothesized the scores were positively correlated with the SF-12 and SCIM-III scores and negatively correlated with the BDI-II scores.


The results illustrated there is evidence to support the validity and reliability of the WhOM-Farsi scores.