Treatment of tobacco dependence in mental health and addictive disorders.

People with mental health and addictive (MHA) disorders smoke at high rates and require tobacco treatment as a part of their comprehensive psychiatric care. Psychiatric care providers often do not address tobacco use among people with mental illness, possibly owing to the belief that their patients will not be able to quit successfully or that even short-term abstinence will adversely influence psychiatric status. Progress in the development of treatments has been slow in part because smokers with current MHA disorders have been excluded from most smoking cessation trials. There are several smoking cessation treatment options, including psychological and pharmacological interventions, that should be offered to people with an MHA disorder who smoke. Building motivation and readiness to quit smoking is a major challenge, and therefore motivational interventions are essential. We review the treatment options for people with tobacco dependence and MHA disorders, offer recommendations on tobacco assessment and tailored treatment strategies, and provide suggestions for future research. Treatment efficacy could be enhanced through promoting smoking reduction as an initial treatment goal, extending duration of treatment, and delivering it within an integrated care model that also aims to reduce the availability of tobacco in MHA treatment settings and in the community.